The goal of this review is to discuss the current status of pharmacotherapeutic interventions to treat end stage coronary artery disease areas covered in this review literature review on the topic of therapeutic angiogenesis from 1980 2009. Walter pj ed treatment of end stage coronary artery disease international symposium on treatment of end stage coronary artery disease antwerp june 1987 adv cardiol. Figure 2 postulated three step mechanism in the induction of uremic vascular calcification 1 vascular smooth muscle cells dedifferentiate to become osteoblast like 2 osteob. Coronary artery disease cad also known as ischemic heart disease ihd is the most common of the cardiovascular diseases types include stable angina unstable angina myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death a common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder arm back neck or jaw occasionally it may feel like heartburn. A nursing student is caring for a client with end stage cardiomyopathy the clients spouse asks the student to clarify one of the last treatment options available that the physician mentioned
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