In response to cytokines resembling those released by early extraembryonic tissues mouse and human embryonic stem cells escs or induced pluripotent stem cells ipscs can adopt an epiblast like developmental program in vitro and transiently form epiblast like cells epilcs that are competent to undergo specification into pgc like cells . This chapter discusses the use of embryonic stem es cells as a model in vitro system to study the embryonic muscle development a number of studies indicate that embryonic muscle morphogenesis and myogenic gene expression occur in differentiating es cell cultures are discussed in this chapter. This model offers important advantages over the earlier model including the use of readily available adult stem cells and the potential for development of an epithelium however the lack of a confluent epithelial layer limits the models applicability for in vitro study of vocal fold mucosa physiology. Human embryonic stem cells derived keratinocyte as an in vitro research model for the study of immune response journal of oral pathology medicine official publication of the international association of oral pathologists and the american academy of oral pathology 42 8 627 634
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